and subordinating words 2 :
For other types of connectors, see conjunctions.
adverbs belong to the family of words known as connectors;
they are a
type of sentence adverb used in order to express a
relationship between a first clause and a second clause that follows
These are very similar to subordinating conjunctions. The biggest
difference is that conjunctive adverbs can frequently be used in a
variety of positions within the subordinate clause,
subordinating conjunctions MUST
stand at the start of the subordinate
: its the position in the clause is flexible
conjunction; only one position is possible
- They bought a new car; it was however
small for their family.
- They bought a new car; it was still
too small for their family, however
- They bought a new car; however
it was still too small for their family.
bought a new car; it was still too small however
- Although they bought a new car, it was
still too small for their family.
Here are some of the most common conjunctive adverbs
besides, furthermore, additionally, so (additional
- Therefore, thus, consequently, so (consequential)
- Alternatively, similarly, (comparative)
- However, nevertheless, otherwise (contrastive)
Special case: too
they are both "connectors", It is important to distinguish between
conjunctive adverbs and subordinating conjunctions, as they are not
used in the same way. There are differences at two levels, as this
||With a conjunctive adverb
a subordinating conjunction
therefore, in fact, nevertheless, moreover,
so (meaning therefore or and
the same is true for)
because, before, until, while, since,
the sense of purpose), so that
of the secondary
clause in the sentence
must follow the
can either precede or follow the main
of the connector
(adverb or conjunction) within its clause.
can only come at the start
of the secondary clause
The case of too .
means the same as also,
but is used after the
clause to which it applies (examples
15 and 16 below). Too
can also be used as an intensifier at the end of a
secondary clause introduced by and
meanings of so
So, as a conjunctive adverb, can either express
is used to introduce an additional action, it is necessary to invert the subject and the
auxiliary . The same goes for the negative
equivalent of so, which
is nor. (Examples 6 et 7).
- a consequence
(see example 5)
- an additional
example 6 ) .
with the meaning of purpose, see subordinating
For a general overview , see specific page on Uses of So .
- I bought a new shirt; I also bought some new
- I bought a new shirt; also
I bought some
- I bought a new shirt; I bought some blue suede
- This is good cheese; besides
- There's no more beer, so
we'll have to
- I went to San Francisco last summer; so did my brother.
- I didn't go to San Francisco, nor
- They won the state lottery, therefore
now rather rich.
- He found the solution; thus he was able to
finish the project in time.
- He found the solution; he was thus
able to finish
the project in time.
- You can cross by ferry; alternatively
can take the Channel Tunnel.
- They bought a new house; it was however
small for their family.
- They bought a new house; it was still
too small for their family, however.
- Stop making that noise, otherwise
- John went to London; Mary went there too
- I saw John and Mary too