Linguapress  Advanced level reading resources Intermediate reading resources English grammar online Language games and puzzles
Linguapress Online resources for English studies - EFL - ESL - ESOL
Linguapress for mobiles - home page English Grammar Free advanced level resources Free intermediate level resourcess
linguapressIntermediate English
on your mobile
Linguapress for Mobiles
Linguapress ›    Intermediate English  ›    London's big red buses

Linguapress intermediate English   -  Discover London


They've changed over the years; they're not the same today as they were thirty years ago; but big red double-decker buses are icons of London, and they are recognised (and found) all over the world

Line of Routemasters in London's Oxford StreetWhat is the best-known symbol of London? Big Ben? The statue of Eros in Picadilly Circus? Or could it be something much more ordinary than that? Could it be the big red London double-decker bus?
    It certainly could. Big red buses are recognised - and even found - all over the world, and people recognise them as symbols of London. Visitors climb into London buses to go and see the Niagara Falls. London buses can be seen driving round Europe to advertise big department stores, or British events . They don't need to have the words "London Transport" on the side of them. People recognise them at once!     
London bus  Red London buses in 2016
Above right: a line of Routemasters in 2002
     It was over 100 years ago, on October 25th 1911, that the London General Omnibus Company ran their last horse-drawn omnibus through the streets of the capital. Since then the big red motor bus has been London's "king of the road".
Today, every day, thousands of Londoners use the big red buses to move - often slowly - around town. Lots of tourists know that a one-day London bus pass, valid on all regular bus routes, offers a wonderful way to see  Britain's capital city.    
    The idea of the "double decker" is actually much older than the motor bus. It is  a continuation of the system that was used for public transport in the age of horse-drawn vehicles, when some of the passengers sat inside, and the rest travelled on the roof. Too bad if it was raining!
    The earliest horse-drawn double-deckers in London had steps at the back, so that people could climb up onto the roof. The main difference with today's buses was that in those days, there was no protection for the people travelling on top. If it rained, they could pull a sort of oil-cloth cover out of the back of the seat in front of them, and pull it over them; but they still got wet.
    Today the only open-topped buses are the special tourist buses.     It wasn't until the 1930's that all new buses came equipped with roofs over the upper deck! Increasingly powerful engines meant that buses could be bigger and heavier.  Like trams, they could then have roofs.
    The most famous London buses, however, are not those that filled the Capital's streets in the 1930's, but the powerful "Routemasters" which date from the 1950's and 60's. These are the buses that have been taken all over the world, the buses that you can see in the tourist brochures, and the ones which have been sold, in miniature, to millions of visitors and souvenir hunters.
    The Routemaster is an icon in itself! With its open platform at the back end, the Routemaster was the most popular bus in London, because passengers could climb on and off anywhere, even if the bus was moving (though this was not recommended!) These buses were designed specially for London, by people who knew what London needed, and they  served their purpose well, and did so for half a century !
    Things started to go wrong for the London bus in the late 1960's. That was when the Ministry of Transport decided that it would only give financial help to bus companies that bought new buses with doors! Suddenly London Transport found they could no longer buy any more of their favourite Routemasters, that they had designed. They had instead to choose other models. Today, European Union rules also say that new buses for public transport must have doors.
    London, however,  resisted the bureaucrats! Determined to keep the buses that Londoners (and tourists) wanted, London Transport kept the old Routemasters going as long as possible. Five hundred of the solid and popular old buses were extensively renovated, and put back on the road as good as new, if not better! But not even the Routemaster could resist the winds of change. Modern transport systems require one-man buses, not buses with both a driver and a conductor. So in 2005, the old Routemasters were finally taken out of normal service. 

    Still, it's not too late to enjoy travelling on one of these historic buses. Some of the old buses have been preserved, and were used on two "heritage routes" through the centre of London, specially for tourists.  Route 9 went from the Royal Albert Hall to Aldwych, via Piccadilly circus and Trafalgar Square; but the last Routmasters were used on this route in 2014. The only route left is Route 15, which goes from Trafalgar Square to the Tower of London, via St. Paul's Cathedral.  But other old Routemasters are used by the tourist bus companies, which offer trips round the centre of London.

Word guide

WORDS:   advertise: publicise, promote conductor: on a bus, the man who sells tickets, not the driver. - department stores: big shops with lots of different departments - double decker: with two levels - drawn: to draw, to pull - events: occasions, special presentations - horse-drawn: pulled by horses - hunt: look for- increasingly: more and more - omnibus: bus - pass: an unlimited ticket - serve their purpose: do what they are meant to do  - trams: buses that run on rails - are valid: can be used.

Return to Linguapress site index

Printing: Optimized for A4 printing from the Firefox browser
© Linguapress.  Do not copy this document to any other website
Copying permitted for personal study, or by teachers for use with their students


Student Worksheet


Complete this extract from the text, replacing the missing prepositions:

      at - for - in - in - in - of - of - of - of - on - onto - out - over - over - until - up - with - with

The earliest horse-drawn double-deckers ________ London had steps _______ the back so that people could climb _______ _______ the roof. The main difference ________ today's buses was that _______ those days, there was no protection _______ the people travelling _______ top. If it rained, they could pull a sort _______ oil-cloth cover _______ _______ the back _______ the seat _______ front _______ them, and pull it _______ them. It wasn't _______ the 1930's that all new buses came equipped _______ roofs _______ the upper deck!.


True or false: you may need to reflect carefully to determine the answers to some of these statements:

1. There are buses that go from London to Niagara Falls T / F

2. People recognise London buses because they have the words "London Transport" on them. T / F

3. Motor buses operated in London before October 1911. T / F

4. A daily bus-pass does not allow people to use special tourist buses. T / F

5. Some old horse-drawn buses had roofs over the top deck. T / F

6. Double-decker trams had roofs over the top deck. T / F

7. "Routemaster" buses have no doors at the back end. T / F

8. London Transport are now building new Routemaster buses, in spite of European Union rules. T / F


Notes for teachers

Text contraction:

Taking the article paragraph by paragraph,summarize this article in less than half its length. To do this, they should first of all write down a short sentence summarizing the essential point(s) of each paragraph, then string these sentences together, adding extra important information when appropriate.


Town names used as adjectives.  Use the expression Big red London bus to illustrate how the names of towns and cities (and other locations... though not usually countries) are used like adjectives in compound noun groups.  We say a London bus, not a Londoner bus or a Londonish bus, or a Londonian bus .
Though there are a few city names for which English also has common adjectives, such as Paris / Parisian  or Rome / Roman, these are quite rare exceptions: the general rule is to use the name of the town, so...  
a London fog ,  the Manchester team,  the Washington office,   my Toronto friends,  New York skyscrapers,  the Berlin orchestra, etc.

Other ideas?
EFL teachers: Help develop this resource by contributing extra teaching materials or exercises.
Click here for further details
This teaching resource is © copyright Linguapress 1994 - 2017.
Revised 2017 . Originally published in Freeway, the Intermediate level English newsmagazine.
Republication on other websites or in print is not authorised

Follow Linguapress on Facebook
Intermediate English resource

Level - upper Intermediate.
CEFR LEVEL :  B2 upper intermediate
IELTS Level :  7 
Flesch-Kincaid  scores
Reading ease level:   66  Plain English  
Grade level: 8.5
A selection of other resources in graded English
from Linguapress
Selected pages
Intermediate resources :
Dialogue : Talking about fashion
Dialogue : Fast food, OK ?
Sport: The story of football and rugby
The story of London
USA: Who was Buffalo Bill?
USA: Close encounters with a Twister  
More: More intermediate reading texts  
Advanced level reading :
USA : America's Amish
Who killed Martin Luther King?
USA - Discovering Route 66
People : Stephen Hawking
Music :  The story of the Blues
More: More advanced reading texts  
Selected grammar pages
Online English grammar
Nouns in English
Word order in English
Reported questions in English
Language and style 
Word stress in English
The short story of English

Copyright notice.

All articles published on this website remain the copyright © of and/or their individual authors.
Reproduction is authorised exclusively for use by students for personal use, or for teachers for use in class.
Copyright 2001  - 2017
Multi-copying of this resource is permitted for classroom use. In schools declaring the source of copied materials to a national copyright agency, Linguapress intermediate level resources should be attributed to "Freeway" as the source and "Linguapresss France" as the publisher.
Multicopiage en France: en cas de déclaration CFEDC par l'établissement, document à attribuer à "Freeway", éditeur "Linguapress"..

European law requires us to inform you that like most websites Linguapress uses cookies. To remove this message click   or otherwise click for more details