Numbers
and counting in English Forming
and expressing
numbers  written and oral
See also:
Expressing the date in
English .....
1. Cardinal
numbers
Cardinal numbers are the numbers that we use for
counting or designating quantity : Englishspeakers use them every day
 one two three four
etc. In terms of grammar, they belong to the category of determining adjectives.
From 0 to 100  From zero to a hundred
The number 0
is variously expressed as nought (in British English) or zero (in all
forms of English) : in the middle of a series of
digits, it may also be pronounced "oh".
Here are the important cardinal numbers between one and
a hundred, which can serve as models for other numbers.
1 
one 
11 
eleven 
21 
twentyone

2 
two 
12 
twelve 
22 
twentytwo 
3 
three 
13 
thirteen 
30 
thirty 
4 
four 
14 
fourteen 
40 
forty 
5 
five 
15 
fifteen 
50 
fifty 
6 
six 
16 
sixteen 
60 
sixty 
7 
seven 
17 
seventeen 
70 
seventy 
8 
eight 
18 
eighteen 
80 
eighty 
9 
nine 
19 
nineteen 
90 
ninety 
10 
ten 
20 
twenty 
100 
a
hundred 
Watch out for spelling: fourteen
but forty. Numbers from 101 to 999  threedigit numbers
Important:
the examples and rules below illustrate British usage.
In the USA,
the word and
is normally omitted.
A hyphen () is normally used in numbers between 21 and 99, whether
these stand alone or are part of a larger number.
From these examples, all other threedigit numbers in English can be
formed.
101 
a hundred and one 
365 
three
hundred and sixtyfive 
111 
a hundred and eleven 
480 
four
hundred and eighty 
121 
a hundred and twentyone 
545 
five
hundred and fortyfive 
133 
a hundred and thirtythree 
644 
six
hundred and fortyfour 
257 
two hundred and fiftyseven 
799 
seven
hundred and ninetynine 
Notes :
The word "hundred"
, except as a round number (a number ending in 00), is always followed
by "and",
both in spoken English and in written English when numbers are written
out as
words.
The word hundred
never takes an "s"
as part of a cardinal number.
For numbers between 100 and 199, one normally says "a
hundred" and not "one
hundred".
The expression "one
hundred" is used only to put emphasis on the figure one
(i.e. one, not two nor three), or to stress the word.
Example:
I counted one hundred
and twenty planes (and not 220 nor 320)
Hundreds
in the plural
The words hundred,
thousand
and million
never take an s
in the plural as cardinal numbers (which are a form of adjective).
They only
take an s
when used as nouns
designating an imprecise
quantity of hundreds or thousands, etc., followed by of ...
Examples
There
are hundreds of ducks on
the lake.
Thousands of people
crammed into the stadium
These sentences do not say how many hundreds nor how many thousands:
the " s"
is the only mark of plurality.
Numbers from 1000 to 1,000,000
 Apart from round numbers (numbers ending in 00)
numbers above 1000 are normally written in figures, not in
words. They are written in words here as a means to show how they are
used in spoken English.
1000 
a thousand 
4656 
four
thousand six hundred and fiftysix 
1001 
a thousand and one 
10,000 
ten
thousand 
1086 
one thousand and eightysix 
10,148 
ten
thousand one hundred and fortyeight 
1147 
one thousand one hundred and fortyseven 
65,423 
sixtyfive
thousand four hundred and twentythree 
1201 
one thousand two hundred and one 
100,000 
A hundred
thousand 
3600 
three
thousand six hundred 
699,482 
Six
hundred and ninetynine thousand four hundred and eightytwo 
Notes
Reminder
: these examples and rules reflect usage in British English.
In the USA,
the word and
is usually omitted.
 After 1000, if the word "hundred" does not
occur in the number, it is the word thousand
which is followed by and.
 Apart from round numbers (1000, 7000 etc) there will
always be an and
somewhere in the number.
Examples;
1018 = One thousand and
eighteen
(or in US English : One thousand eighteen)
43,003 = fortythree thousand
and three
56,100 = fiftysix thousand one
hundred
Otherwise the word thousand
is not followed by and,
but the word hundred
is.
Examples;
1708 = One thousand
seven
hundred and eight
25,864 = Twentyfive thousand
eight hundred and sixtyfour
 In numbers from 1100 to 1199, the single
hundred will be pronounced one
and not a.
 Fourdigit numbers below 2000 (and rarely above) may
sometimes also be expressed starting with "eleven hundred", "twelve
hundred", etc.
Examples;
1100 = One
thousand one hundred
or
Eleven hundred
22,100 = Twentytwo
thousand one
hundred.
654,122 = Six hundred and fiftyfour thousand, one hundred and
twentytwo
 The word hundred
is always followed by "and"
once it is followed by another digit, and even if it occurs more than
once in the number.
 As cardinal numbers, neither hundred nor thousand
ever take a plural "s". (More)
 Whether writing in figures or in words, whith numbers
of more than than four digits it is normal to put a comma every three
digits.The comma is optional with fourdigit numbers.
Examples;
44,399 Fortyfour thousand, three hundred and ninetynine
637,316 = Six hundred and
thirtyseven thousand,
three hundred and
sixteen.
Numbers greater than a million
The same principles apply.
The number simply starts with a quantity of millions, for example
One million...
or Twentyfive
million...
or Eight hundred and
twenty million...
Two billion
Examples;
1,002,018 = One million two thousand
and eighteen
1,001,116 = One million one thousand one hundred and sixteen.
736,654,121 = Seven hundred and thirtysix million, six hundred and
fiftyfour thousand, one hundred and twentyone
The word hundred
is always followed by "and"
unless it is round (with "00"), no matter how often it occurs in the
number.
Other points to remember:
Figures can be expressed differently when they refer to dates and
telephone numbers, or when they are after a decimal point.
Other pages coming ...
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